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Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea

YC Jang, et al. (2014)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry.
  • Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million.
  • This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Ingestion of marine debris plastic by the wedge-tailed shearwater Ardenna pacifica in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

K Verlis, M Campbell, S Wilson (2013)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • We present the first evidence of ingestion of plastic by seabirds from the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia.
  • Our findings indicate that 21% of surveyed chicks are fed plastic fragments by their parents, having ingested 3.2 fragments on average.
  • Our results indicate that further research is critical to understanding the extent of ingestion, colour preferences, and what impacts ingestion may have on these and other seabird populations in the GBR.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean

S Jiménez, et al. (2015)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion.
  • We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries.
  • Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine Debris and Human Impacts on Sea Turtles in Southern Brazil

L Bugoni, L Krause, M Virgı́nia petry (2001)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces.
  • It appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters.
  • Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well as the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

At-sea detection of marine debris: Overview of technologies, processes, issues, and options

TH Mace (2012)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • At-sea detection of marine debris presents a difficult problem, as the debris items are often relatively small and partially submerged.
  • The application of models, satellite radar and multispectral data, and airborne remote sensing (particularly radar) to focus the search on eddies and convergence zones in the open ocean appear to be a productive avenue of investigation.
  • A path forward may best be achieved through the refinement of the Ghost Net procedures with the addition of a final search stage using airborne radar from an UAS simulator aircraft to detect zones of potential accumulation for direct search.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

A Pre- and Post-MARPOL Annex V Summary of Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglements and Marine Debris Accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982–1998

JR Henderson (2001)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996.
  • Pups and juvenile seals were more likely to become entangled than older seals, and became entangled primarily in nets, whereas entanglement of subadults and adults was more likely to involve line.
  • The subpopulation of seals at Lisianski Island experienced the most entanglements, although Lisianski did not accumulate the most debris.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration

EA Howell, et al. (2012)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life.
  • Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches".
  • These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Power analysis for beach surveys of marine debris

CA Ribic, LM Ganio (1996)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Power analysis was used to determine if the programme had a high probability of detecting a specified effect.
  • We compared the use of a repeated measures model and a one-way analysis of variance model to investigate the power of detecting a 20% linear decrease in litter on beaches over a 5-year period, with power of 0.84 or more, a Type I error rate of 0.05, and quarterly sampling.
  • We used the average coefficient of variation and, for the repeated measures model, average autocorrelations as estimates of model parameters.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris

AD Mcintyre (1997)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

  • There is no summary for this article.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone

ML Brandão, KM Braga, JL Luque (2011)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
  • There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds).
  • It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Pathways of marine debris derived from trajectories of Lagrangian drifters

N Maximenko, J Hafner, P Niiler (2012)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Model experiments, simulating long-term evolution of initially homogeneous drifter array, reveal five main sites of drifter aggregation, located in the subtropics and maintained by converging Ekman currents.
  • The paper characterizes the geography and structure of the collection regions and discusses factors that determine their dynamics.
  • A new scale R(c)=(4k/|D|)(½) is introduced to characterize tracer distribution under competing effects of horizontal divergence D and diffusion k. Existence and locations of all five accumulation zones have been recently confirmed by direct measurements of microplastic at the sea surface.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats

SDA Smith, RJ Edgar (2014)
PLoS One

Summary

  • By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia.
  • Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres.
  • In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales.
Agriculture and Veterinary Science
Biology
Medical and Health Science
 Abstract

Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California

A Van, et al. (2012)
Chemosphere

Summary

  • Plastic debris were collected from eight beaches around San Diego County, California.
  • Debris collected include: pre-production pellets and post-consumer plastics including fragments, polystyrene (PS) foam, and rubber.
Chemistry
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Hitch-hiking on floating marine debris: macrobenthic species in the Western Mediterranean Sea

S Aliani, A Molcard (2003)
Hydrobiologia

Summary

  • The effect of marine debris on wildlife, tourism and human health is well documented and there is considerable scientific literature about plastic litter in the sea and over the seabed, mostly highlighting the possible impact on marine mammals and tourism.
  • For some species, extension of their geographical range is more likely to be related to transport of mature individuals on floating rafts than to the active or passive dispersal of reproductive propagules.
  • Variability and variety of rafting materials has increased dramatically in recent years and marine litter has been used widely as a raft by ‘hitch-hiking’ species.
Biology
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris and northern fur seals: A case study

CW Fowler (1987)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Since the early 1930s small numbers of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) have been observed with various objects caught around their necks, shoulders and, less frequently, their flippers.
  • The incidence of such entanglement increased following the mid-1960s when fishing effort in the North Pacific and Bering Sea increased and when plastic materials began to be used extensively in making trawl netting and packing bands.
  • Compared to non-entangled seals, entangled seals spend more time at sea, whether foraging, travelling, or both.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama

SD Garrity, SC Levings (1993)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Beach transects, collections, and experiments were used to examine debris abundance, composition, type, possible sources, and dynamics (longevity, net changes on cleared and undisturbed beaches).
  • The most frequent country of origin was Panama (43%), with other countries of the Caribbean region contributing 31%, the US 16%, and the remaining 10% from more distant sources.
  • Repeated monitoring of uncleared beaches showed that debris generally accumulated slowly over time, but occasionally showed sharp increases or decreases.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia

T Lawson, et al. (2015)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals.
  • The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour.
  • Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

Marine debris from the Oregon Dungeness crab fishery recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Identification and oceanic drift paths

CC Ebbesmeyer, et al. (2012)
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Summary

  • Two Dungeness crab trap tags and floats lost off the State of Oregon, USA during the 2006-2007 fishing season were recovered 4years later in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI): on Lisianski Island on July 15, 2010; and on Kure Atoll on December 10, 2010.
  • This is the first documented recovery of marine debris from Oregon fisheries in the NWHI.
  • We simulate the oceanic drift tracks of the derelict fishing gear with the Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) model using estimated loss dates in Oregon based on interviews with the crab trap owners and known recovery sites and dates in the NWHI.
Earth Science
Environmental Science
 Abstract

U.S. Senate examines concerns about marine debris from 2011 Japan tsunami

R Showstack (2012)
Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union

Summary

  • Approximately 5 million tons of debris washed into the Pacific Ocean from Japan following the 11 March 2011 tsunami, and the Japanese government estimates that 1.5 million tons may still be floating on or below the ocean surface.
  • We don't have a clue,” David Kennedy, NOAA assistant administrator for ocean services and coastal zone management, testified before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.
  • He said that some materials pushed by the wind could be expected to float but that materials pushed by currents under the surface are difficult to find.
Earth Science
Physics
 Abstract

Marine Debris & Plastics: Environmental Concerns, Sources, Impacts and Solutions

SB Sheavly, KM Register (2007)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment

Summary

  • Marine debris (marine litter) is one of the most pervasive and solvable pollution problems plaguing the world’s oceans and waterways.
  • Nets, food wrappers, cigarette filters, bottles, resin pellets, and other debris items can have serious impacts on wildlife, habitat, and human safety.
  • Education and outreach programs, strong laws and policies, and governmental and private enforcement are the building blocks for a successful marine pollution prevention initiative.
Engineering
 Abstract